Russolo, Luigi

He was a member of a group of Italian artists call the ‘Futurists’. They wanted to inspire people to make music that reflected the new industrial world of big ships, trains, cars and factories. He arg...


To play a sound backwards.


The multiple short reflections of sound that give humans an immediate impression of space. Reverb effects can be used to impart a sense of space onto recorded or generated sounds.

Reduced Listening

(originally Écoute Réduite) In Schaefferian theory, reduced listening is the attitude which consists in listening to the sound for its own sake, as a sound object by removing its real or supposed sour...


Recording technology allows us to capture sounds and store them so that they can be played back later. Recorded sounds may also be edited. See Also: Sound Recorder