Layering

A compositional approach in which different sound textures are placed alongside one another. It allows the listener to compare and contrast one sound texture against another, and for the composer…

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LFO (Low Frequency Oscillator)

A sound wave that has a low frequency (usually below the range of human hearing) but which can be used to manipulate sound within the range of human hearing. LFO’s…

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Limiter

a manipulation which prevents the amplitude of an audio signal exceeding a chosen dynamic level. This can be useful in reducing dynamic range without causing clipping. These are often used…

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Listening

Attention focused upon sounds. On this website you will come across a few different types of listening: Contextual Listening, Heightened Listening, Passive Listening and Musical Listening. Pierre Schaeffer was the…

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Live Electronics

live performance with electronic instrument devices that can be controlled in real time. Live electronics performances might involve a fixed (non-real time) element and/or a part for traditional orchestral instruments…

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Loop

To loop a sound is to continuously repeat it. Pierre Schaeffer used looping to draw the listener’s focus away from the source of the sound, and towards the rhythm and…

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Loudness

The relative volume of a sound, ranging from loud to quiet. Loudness can be scientifically defined in terms of amplitude, BUT it is in fact a relative property of sound.…

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Loudspeaker

A loudspeaker is a device designed to reproduce sounds. It takes an electrical signal and coverts it in to sound wave vibrations in the air. The loudspeaker does this through…

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Loudspeaker Orchestra

a tool for presenting electroacoustic music that is composed within the studio. Loudspeakers take the place of musicians upon the stage and around the auditorium, with the performer/composer sat at…

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Low-pass Filter

A low-pass filter lets the bass tones through (the low frequencies) and removes the treble (high frequencies). The separation between low and high frequencies is called the cut-off frequency. If…

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lowercase sound

a style of music and sound works that focus upon quiet, small, or commonly ‘overlooked’ sounds. Lowercase artists are most interested in listening as a creative act, and seek to…

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Luigi Russolo

He was a member of a group of Italian artists call the ‘Futurists’. They wanted to inspire people to make music that reflected the new industrial world of big ships,…

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